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Ambulances respond to medical emergencies and help transport patients to necessary medical facilities, such as hospitals. They must also be well equipped with some primary medical equipment.

The ambulance ensures the rapid arrival of the paramedic team or other primary responders to a medical emergency scene that provides primary medical care and transfers patients to hospitals. Ambulances are generally manufactured in the form of trucks or vans. There may be bus or car ambulances and boat and airplane ambulances to overcome emergencies while traveling in special cases.


Vehicle types

Based on the severity of the emergency, ambulances can be classified into four types. They are classified as type I, type II, type II, type IV.

Type i The ambulance is intended to provide advanced life support and perform rescue work. They are also called Mobile Intensive Care Unit or MICU. Heavy trucks with a compartment at the rear are used for Type I ambulances.

Type II Ambulances are generally intended to provide basic life support. Still, it is very frequently observed that they are also used to provide advanced life support and rescue and type I ambulances. Therefore, for type II ambulances, the use of modified heavy duty vans is recommended.

Type III ambulances use vans, and type IV Ambulances use much smaller utility vehicles where trucks or passenger vehicles have a difficult time reaching. This is applicable for emergencies not called in commercial premises or industrial complexes, in events with a large influx of public, etc.

Functional types

Ambulances are built in such a way that they can fulfill more than one function. Some functional classifications of ambulances are listed below:

  • Emergency ambulance – This is the most common type of ambulance constantly visible on the roads. They can be trucks, cars, planes, or even converted vehicles like a golf cart.

  • Patient transport ambulance: transport patients from or between medical centers.

  • Ambulance bus: they are mainly used to transport a large number of patients together.

  • Charity Ambulances – Certain types of ambulances are provided by charitable funds to carry sick children or elderly people admitted on trips outside of the hospital.

  • Bariatric Ambulance – These ambulances are designed with equipment and tools to transport and move extremely obese people.

Safety and equipment

Other vehicles may or may not, but ambulances are required to offer their services twenty-four hours a day, twenty-four hours a day. Ambulances must operate in all weather conditions ensuring maximum patient safety. Therefore, in all ambulances there must be certain equipment so that they can facilitate patient care. They are:

  • Two-way radio that broadcasts jobs to ambulances and allows communication between the hospital and the scene of the emergency.

  • Sometimes, instead of two-way radios, mobile data terminals are installed in ambulances that connect directly to central computers in control centers.

  • CCTV cameras must also be present inside an ambulance to record patient behavior which is required for future reference.

  • A good ambulance should also carry a track lift so that a patient can be lifted without any difficulty. Air conditioners must be in working condition as a closed ambulance can suffocate without support.

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